Seven species of Mangrove are found within The Sanctuary, more than found in all of South Africa. They form discrete communities in the sheltered areas of The Sanctuary and, while some are eroding, others are stable or expanding and have been for many years. Mangrove areas tend to be dynamic, especially in sandy areas, but all are extremely important in terms of successful breeding of fish and invertebrates. Mangroves also provide nesting and protection for many species of water birds. The tidal range on The Sanctuary is often over four meters over Spring tide, compared to the norm in South Africa of under 1.5 metres. This creates an extensive area that is inundated and then dried twice per day; an inhospitable environment for most vegetation other than Mangroves which thrive in these conditions and outcompete all other trees in these areas. Mangroves populate what would otherwise be barren areas, filling them with magnificent, evergreen cover and creating areas abundant in vast amounts of nutrition, while also offering plentiful protection to allow many fish and invertebrate species to spawn at high tides.